Prospects for the use of unconventional biological resources of water bodies of Volgograd Region
The project aims to develop the fundamentals of an integrated non-conventional bio-resources of water bodies of Volgograd region. The goal of the project is the implementation of the concept of environmental management, rehabilitation of water bodies, a resource base for industry and agriculture. The developed approach was investigated for the treatment of non-traditional water bodies and bio comprehensive study of the properties of metabolic products of aquatic organisms. Samples were obtained in laboratory quantities of fireproof, absorption, hydrophilic, adhesive, biodestructable substances and materials, feed additives, fertilizers, bio-gas.
It is assumed that the products obtained by the methods of processing raw materials of non-traditional, derived from aquatic organisms, will be widely used in medicine, pharmaceuticals, plastics industry, technology, environmental technology, agriculture in growing birds and fish of valuable species. In addition, the technology used will significantly improve and improve the ecological situation of water bodies of Volgograd Region, without affecting the biodiversity of our waters. The project authors have extensive experience working with biological objects, biotechnological and microbiological equipment, have considerable creative and intellectual potential.
- Kostin, V. E., Candidate of Technical Sciences
- Kablov V. F., Doctor of Technical Sciences
- Kondrutsky D. A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
- Hlobzheva I. N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
- Sokolova N. A.
The most important results received in 2008
1) A feed supplement for sturgeon, carp and poultry. As forage selected natural sources — Volgograd reservoir zoo-plankton and sapropel, safe for fish and birds, as well as clam Dreissena biomass containing balanced, easily digestible complex nutrients.
Inclusion in the diet of juvenile sturgeon 10 % of the feed additive increases the growth of live weight in fattening animals up to 30 %. You can also note a beneficial effect on overall health and increase immunity. This is associated with a balanced content of the mixed fodder complex nutrients.
The possibility of obtaining dry feed on shellfish meat zebra mussel, as well as from crushed shellfish (meat, along with a sink). Feed were tested in a model experiment on the fish species of carp.
2) Of the zoo-plankton, along with feed additives derived chitin and chitosan — biopolymers with valuable properties of the complex. Materials based on them are non-toxic, highly reactive, biodegradability, fire resistant, water-insoluble and very promising for use in various branches of science and technology. The yield of chitin in the biochemical processing of zoo-plankton is 10–15 wt% of the amount of raw materials. The yield of chitosan — up to 50 % by weight of the obtained chitin.
3) to develop absorbents based multi-molecular complexes of chitosan with other synthetic polymers and biopolymers and the resulting materials were studied in the processes of water purification of metal ions, oil products and toxic organic substances. Their effectiveness has been confirmed. A new ion-exchange absorption and polymer material with improved technological parameters, namely, increased capacity, selectivity, efficiency in extracting trace metals, as well as environmental safety, based on non-conventional raw water bodies of Volgograd Region. Static capacity of the cations Cu (II) is 8.8 meq/g and is located at the world's leading manufacturers of materials. The prospects of FAK to extract copper from process solutions and waste waters.
First synthesized new hybrid polymers containing units of peptides (focal polypeptides containing aluminium and boron, and polypeptides of phosphorus).
The conditions for the synthesis of phosphorus-containing hybrid polypeptides (fusion occurs only in acidic medium, with an excess of fosfonometiliruyuschey mixture leads to the formation of peptides derived gidrofosforilnyh).
Developed a method of template synthesis of phosphorus-containing polypeptides on nickel cations, which allows to obtain a product with selective absorption properties of a given metal.
Establishes the basic relationship between the molecular structure of the obtained hybrid polymers, oligomers and their physico-chemical properties: selective absorption of transition metal ions, resistance to thermal oxidative degradation, low inflammability, adhesion to skin a natural, biodegradable.
4) The effective fire-retardant coatings based on proteins of zoo-plankton Volgograd reservoir and compounds of boron and aluminum. Oxygen index of treated wood composition according to GOST 21793-76 is 53 % at its expense in an amount of 0.8 — 0,9 kg per 1 m2 wood surface. In addition, these materials can be provided with the properties of thermal indication the temperature exceeds a certain limit. It is established that the hybrid polypeptides aluminum-based «natural» units, act as polydentate ligands, polynuclear complex structures with synthetic micro- and ultramicroparticles hydroxoborats of aluminum with variable composition (xAl2O3 . yB2O3 . zH2O) due to ionic and coordination bonds between the electron-donating groups of gelatin and functional groups hydroxoborats of aluminum.
It is shown that the hybrid polymers have a higher fire protection properties due to their physico-chemical structure. Materials with such a set of properties is practically not represented on the Russian market.
5) studied the place of occurrence of natural organic materials sapropel in the Volga-Akhtubinskaya floodplain. Sampled sapropels from shoaled waters of the Volga-Akhtubinskaya floodplain. Proposed use of sapropel as an additive to fodder not in pure form, but with the addition of other components (up to 25 % by weight of sapropel), such as chitosan, a shellfish meat zebra mussel, waste calcium raw materials, including crushed clamshell zebra mussel, whey, etc. In the study area the thickness of sapropel is insufficient for industrial development. Places of occurrence of sapropel are located in the Natural Park «Volga-Akhtubinskaya floodplain» in remote places. The development of these deposits will inevitably damage the natural ecosystems.
6) The possibility of obtaining biogas from macrophytes. It is established that the process of methanogenesis using macrophytes begin soon, the biomass remaining after the production of biogas is an environmentally friendly organic fertilizer.
7) Defined bioreactor type and mode of mixing in metatenke organic biomass, as well as possible digestion of various raw materials for biogas production. Designed (with use of 3D-modeling) biogas batch reactor with mechanical stirring.
8) On synthetic nutrient medium isolated fiber-destroying bacteria, allowing fermental enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, which is necessary to extract the sugars, alcoholic fermentation capable of different plant waste.
The novelty of the results obtained is protected by RF patent 2325230 «Method for selective absorption and ion-exchange materials». These materials are derived from proteins and peptides hydrolysates obtained by treatment of zoo-plankton Volgograd reservoir proteolytic enzymes.
Blue-green algae used slightly, mainly algae genus Spirulina. It is proposed to use the totality of phytoplankton, consisting mostly of various species of blue-green algae, and unicellular green and diatoms. The main directions of use — recycling into fertiliser and biogas and bioethanol.
Proposed use of the higher aquatic plants and algae as a feedstock for biogas production. The waste remaining after the production of biogas are considered as a valuable organic fertilizer and a component for improving the structure of clay and sandy soils. In addition, the waste obtained after digestion of vegetable waste, including single-celled algae and macrophytes, it is proposed to use as fodder in vermicultivation.
The obtained results are consistent with international standards. The hybrid biotechnology processing zoo-plankton and phytoplankton, macrophytes, mollusks Dreissena genus Volgograd reservoir in a number of new Securities absorption, ion exchange, fire-heat-shielding materials, organic fertilisers, feed formulations and new energy sources (biogas, bioethanol) correspond to the highest international requirements for environmental safety and implement the concept of environmental sustainability.
Preference was given to the renewable raw materials of biological origin, thus avoiding the crisis caused by rising levels of consumption of traditional hydrocarbon resources.
The results of these studies are the basis for the development of effective technologies for second generation bioethanol.